m88 สำรอง Ill explain everything that I know about it and how it works. Once its in place, you build another. As of now, if you are to take everything away from me, my money, my cars my house, my resources or whatever, just give me a laptop and a high speed internet connection and I can be ready by evening and will be making money on the same day. Then you setup another product that you are promoting and that product is again making some thousands of dollars. Specially, when you have built that first one and its making you some money, you would be like; yeah! I can do this.
When you have done the first setup itll become easier for you the second time and then the third time. They buy it from the original supplier or manufacturer. If they have any support issue, the vendor is responsible for that. Multiple streams of revenue and this is where it becomes more attractive.
Scalability in affiliate marketing is like I was talking about PLRs, that you would tend to get into in future. You just bring traffic that turns into buyers and you get a commission out of each sale.
The most obvious question that anyone will ask is, Why affiliate marketing? The way it works is that you get paid off a commission. Now the question is why they do so? Why stick only to affiliate marketing? Once you set something up in affiliate marketing, its pretty much going to take care of itself.
So, there is a lot of scalability. Its like building an empire and it is a very easy thing to do. For example, if you are selling medications, you need to handle shipping, customer services, payment processing, accounts management, if someone has a problem or want a refund, they would need to contact you and you would have to provide support for all such things. You dont need to be a technical person to start it off and you can literally start making money within a few hours.
On the other hand, as an affiliate marketer, you dont have to worry about any such thing. I am saying and emphasizing over medication and pharmaceutical products because the average order value of these products is more than $100 and commission is usually 35%. Sometimes this percentage increases to a 75% or more, depending upon if it is a physical product or a digital product. All you are doing is promoting a particular product and people are buying it. Its just like you are working as a salesman for them. He is the founder of SEO Limited, a search engine optimization and online marketing company. Its running and doing its job, that is to make money for you, and you can go out and setup another such machine. He is also the founder of Affiliate Marketing Pakistan.
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Lets talk about affiliate marketing money. Research your niche properly and to start with, select only a few products. You are selling a product and people are going to have some issues that need to be resolved. It doesnt take much to get started and it can be highly profitable very quickly.
No Support Issues
Multiple Revenue Streams
Scalability. You can then focus on creating and setting something else or the same niche up again. With affiliate marketing you get fast money.
You setup one product and itll soon start to make money for you. When we talk about medications, you can build one setup for, lets say, mens health products and then a second for womans health, third for beauty products and so on. There are products that pay more than this commission percentage but pharmaceutical products are relatively easy to sell.
With a lot of the other things which you would probably get into like creating your own product or private label rights (PLR), there are support issues that you have to deal with. The other machine could be a different niche entirely or a different product from the same niche. Most of the times, the percentage is something between 25%-50%. May be itll make some thousands of dollars for you. An affiliate is someone who promotes that product in exchange for a certain commission. You can have several things running at one time. These products can be anything from cell phones to cell phone accessories or laptops, eBooks, medicines or anything. They stick strictly to affiliate marketing.
You would really be surprised of what you can make in terms of revenue. Somebody else has a product that they created and are selling it. This is my passion and I would like to share it with all of you. Its like a machine that is running and you just have to do a little maintenance once a while. People can sign up for that product as an affiliate. Affiliate marketing can really turn into a big thing eventually and you would like to move onto something else. This is something that I have a huge success with and I really love affiliate marketing because anyone can make money with it. What I like about affiliate marketing is that a lot of people make their entire living just out of affiliate marketing and never branch out to other things like PLRs or creating their own product. They have an affiliate program, an affiliate setup script within their own website or they go to a website like click bank, commission junction or any other such website and post their product. Anything, all the worlds products and services are there to make money for you.
No matter what niche you select and what products you start to market, its all about passion, excitement and commitment. Different products have a different commission percentage. Once you have rolled on with your first project and some bucks start to fall in, youll be convinced enough to add-up more products and setting up new projects will be much easier.
Waqqas Alvi is an SEO expert, management consultant, sales and affiliate marketing trainer. Just keep going and built that empire up and you would have money flowing in from all these streams. In other words, as an affiliate, you send internet traffic to that product.
Whatever that product might be, when a sale is completed, youll get a percentage of that sale value. Affiliate marketing is easy to start and it really pays off but you need to be committed and consistent with your efforts.
Ill start with an over view of affiliate marketing
m88 สำรอง He runs Keyfox.de, a gaming related site. However, my friend Florian is a full time affiliate marketer and makes a very nice income from it. But its really not that easy. But just as with any type of business you will still have to put in some time and work to be successful at it.. I do a little bit of affiliate marketing, but it isnt my main business. You can find a lot of good information about affiliate marketing by simply searching Google or going to internet marketing forums. Dont get me wrong, it can be very lucrative. No matter what youre interested in, theres probably an affiliate program for it! If you like basketball, there are a lot of basketball training affiliate programs. If youre looking for in-depth training then check here.
Affiliate marketing is just one of the many ways you can start building a nice income stream from home. They make crazy claims of making millions just buy doing a few easy steps. Choosing the right path to do so can be challenging, though.
Some people will tell you how easy it is. If you love music, there are affiliate programs for guitar, piano, etc
For digital products (ebooks, membership to sites that offer training, etc) the biggest place to look for an affiliate program is Clickbank. If youd prefer to be an affiliate for physical goods (everything from flowers to furniture) a big site to find affiliate programs is Commission Junction. What is affiliate marketing? Basically, youre telling people about a product or service and when people buy from your recommendation through a special link you give them, you are paid a percentage of that sale.
Are you one of the thousands of people that want to work from home? With jobs hard to come by these days, its only natural that more and more people want to start their own business and work from the comfort of their own home
The consumers are invited to share and express their ideas on the use of the brand and what it would mean to them by giving their personal stories. Due to the strict deadlines of publications, be it newspapers or magazines, make sure to prepare your advertisement well in advance.
Other online strategies are pay-per-click advertising, banner fun788 advertising, and email marketing. However, it is not the same as communal marketing aims at achieving a higher level of publicity within highly relevant groups of people.
In the recent past a number of different types of internet marketing strategies have been developed. You can try to give some form of discount coupons or run promotion campaigns for regular customers so that you make them feel special which results in building a loyal customer base.
Marketing Your Products Offline
Print marketing means advertising your products in a magazine or newspaper. By using a combination of offline and online marketing strategies, you can reach a wider audience. The focus may be on a particular set of audience who goes through a particular publication. There are some types of marketing like telemarketing and multilevel marketing, which you may opt to use, but the success rates have not been encouraging.
Having said this, there may be a feeling that it is similar to word-of-mouth or viral marketing. However, these mediums are an excellent tool which can be used to create a brand name in the market.
Article marketing is another type of online marketing wherein you write an article or get someone to write it on a particular product or services and publish them in web directories. Once you have done that when the relevant keywords are searched by internet user, your ads would be visible to him.
With the exponential growth of the internet over the last decade, internet marketing has become one of the most popular strategies used by every businessman. These ads are cheap and easy to shoot and they provide you with such a wide variety of audience that was unimaginable in the past. The price of production are reasonable and it is possible to run a video marketing campaign online at much less cost than the traditional advertising.
Radio and television are other means which can be used to market your products offline. They usually contain a call-to-action response so that the customers feel compelled to notice your product. This results in what is called ‘consumer generated content’ which is then included into the advertising campaign. Internet marketing is also called online marketing, search engine marketing, web marketing, and e-marketing. When we say direct mail it means flyers, brochures and postcards which are sent directly through mail. When a end user signs up for a particular product of an online merchant through a website, the website owner receives a commission from the online merchant.
So, use the above-mentioned types of marketing and marketing tips, and see your product being accepted by a larger audience. It is one of the most powerful tools of advertising. However, it still can be used as a potent force to make people aware that you exist. These are some of the most high profile campaigns and they have the capacity to reach a high number of audience in a very short period of time. With the kind of reach the internet has the chances of customers knowing about your product is high and as a result you would be more likely to gain more customers.
In banner advertising a graphic advertisement is created and then is placed on applicable websites. The main disadvantages of using these as a medium of marketing is their high cost. If you are able to provide an excellent product or service, a satisfied customer would refer your product to his or her acquaintances and friends. This provides the brand with ways to connect with their core market besides opening new avenues to gain new customers.
Advertising in a Print Media
Whether you are starting a company or you are already established in your field of expertise or about to launch a new product, you would always need to market whatever you produce. At the end, the final result of this collective effort is showcased and other people are invited to share the results. When you use direct mail you also have to know the addresses of the people, the geographic location which you want to target and expenses on postage and printing material.
Internet affiliate marketing, is one of the most popular online marketing mediums used today. Advertising in these mediums carry numerous messages; it may either for brand promotion or may be in direct response. If you want to target people in Chicago, you need to publish your advertisement in the most popular daily newspapers of Chicago. Today, most of the people, especially youngsters, search for information over the internet thereby, making it an excellent place to reach a wider audience. There is an old saying which says that the worst marketing is no marketing at all. You need to travel the extra mile so as to build a relationship with your customers. Thanks to search engines, today you are able to place ads of your company and products alongside with your competitors at a competitive price.
Communal marketing takes the views of the public and involves them while developing an advertising campaign. Affiliate Marketing
Email marketing uses email addresses to promote new products and offers so that potential customers comes to know the new trends in the market.
This is the oldest form of marketing and is still being used today. As a result customers, if satisfied, would keep coming back and if they refer someone you will be able to get more leads. In pay per click advertising, you need to place your bids on search terms. Irrespective of your budget, there are several types of marketing which you can use to make your services known to people. Video ads which are published online are increasingly being used by corporates. Here, revenue is shared between an online merchant and the owner of a particular website. However, you need to be patient as you can’t expect overnight results.
. This advertisement, when clicked on by the interested internet surfer, directs the customers to the website of the advertiser.
Even in this digital age the advantages of traditional marketing also called direct marketing can’t be overlooked. There are several people who say that direct mail marketing has passed its use by date
m88 สำรอง He managed his home team, Borussia Mönchengladbach, for eight years, until 1987. During the 2011-2012 season, Bayern Munich had a string of second place finishes, narrowly losing to England’s Chelsea F.C. Additionally, Heynckes was a part of the West German national team, which won a European championship and a World Cup during his tenure.
Heynckes played as a striker which means he played at the front of the field and was responsible for scoring goals. During his second stint at Mönchengladbach, the team was in its heyday, and as the top scorer in the Bundesliga during 1974 and 1975, Heynckes was in no small part responsible for the team’s success. As a young manager, Heynckes did not lead Borussia to the same level of success the team enjoyed when he was on the field, but the experience he gained there led to a series of successful and not so successful management posts around Europe. That game was particularly disappointing for Bayern fans, since the team lost as the result of a 4-3 penalty shootout at the end of a tied game. At the time of this writing, the club led the Bundesliga by 9 points and had advanced to the Champions League round of 16 at the top of their group. After a successful career as a football player, Heynckes went on to become one of the most skilled managers in the Bundesliga (German Football League).
His Early Career
Heynckes as a Manager
Among Heynckes’ golden moments as manager were the 1989 and 1990 German championship wins for Bayern Munich, and the 1998 Champions League success for Spain’s Real Madrid, who had not had a Champions League win for 32 years. Although it could be argued that Heynckes was a better player than a manager, his successes will be enough to secure his place in the history of German football.
Ups and Downs
After a brief period with another team, Hannover 96, Heynckes went back to Mönchengladbach. He stayed with Borussia for the remainder of his career as a football player, until 1978. His tendency to become red in the face turning tense moments on the sidelines earned him the nickname “Osram,” after a German manufacturer of lighting.
Ending with Bayern Munich
Heynckes’ Legacy. Before winning the UEFA cup, Borussia became the first German team to play in a UEFA cup final in 1973. At the time that Heynckes joined the team in 1964, Borussia was a second division team, meaning that they competed in a league below the First Bundesliga. in the Champions League final. That year, Heynckes’ team also yielded the Bundesliga championship to Borussia Dortmund.
Jupp Heynckes, born in 1945 in Mönchengladbach, Germany, was an extremely influential figure in the world of German Football Association. During his career there, he won four championships, one national cup, and one UEFA cup (the Europe-wide club championship). The year after Heunckes joined, Borussia managed to make their way into the first division where they enjoyed some success.
The Mönchengladbach Golden Years
Starting in 2011, Heynckes returned to Bayern Munich for his third tenure as manager of the Bundesliga stars. He began his footballing career with the Borussia Mönchengladbach squad, called Borussia for short. In addition to these successes, there were some decidedly low points in Heynckes’ managerial career, including early terminations from German teams Bayern Munich and Schalke 04.
At the relatively young age of 33, Heynckes left the football field and began his managerial career. During the 2012-2013 season, which was to be Heynckes’ final season as a football manager, Bayern Munich were off to a good start
In addition, I suggest using a system that has been proven. You will find that most horse racing blogs are moderated and maintained by experts who have developed reliable handicapping systems and are more than willing to share secrets with subscribers. In addition, I suggest that you concentrate on only one or two race tracks every horse betting season. Make money betting on horse racing by learning how to handicap the horses properly by reading the articles on this site. You will also need to know how each horse performs in a variety of weather and track conditions and whether there is a synergy between the horse and a particular jockey. By handicapping the horses and race conditions and studying the various mathematical models, you may make money betting on horse racing.
Finally, use online resources, such as TwinSpires, to make bets online and receive free tips on handicapping
In addition, I suggest that you review all race results on a regular basis by studying copies of the “Daily Racing Form.” This newspaper can be instrumental in teaching you how to handicap properly and win more money. In addition, track the performance of each horse and knowing whether the performance of the horse is improving with maturity or declining with age. I spend my time knowing the Southern California race tracks
You might also read online blogs about horse racing in order to make money by betting on horse racing. In addition, many of these blogs feature online-discussion forums on which you can swap information about effective betting methods and systems.
While there is no guarantee that anyone will win consistently by betting on horse races, recent developments in computer software and handicapping methods have reduced the amount of financial risk. I do not use a computer software to make money on betting on horse racing. I use “How to ‘Place Bet’ on Favorites for a Living” by Mohammed Ali. You will find the “Daily Racing Form” available at most newsstands, at horse racing venues and by direct-mail subscription as well as online downloads.
How does gambling affect an individual? What are its effects on society? Read this Buzzle article to know about the negative impact of gambling.
Impact of Internet Gambling
So many of us are attracted to gambling online.
Negative Effects of Gambling
Gambling is the act of betting money with the expectation of profits. The thrill in betting money and that excitement in the uncertainty of winning or losing it is addictive. Some of us are addicted to the habit, without even knowing that. With so many…
Reasons Why Gambling Should Be Illegal
What are the adverse effects of gambling? How does it affect society? Should gambling be legal? We don’t think so and here we bring you an article that discusses the reasons why gambling should be illegal.
Internet Gambling Facts and Problems
What do you know about Internet gambling? Are you aware of the problems associated with it? Read on to know them and find some alarming facts about online gambling, in this article.
I’m not big on betting, but it is entirely possible to bet using your feelings as a judgment call..
Your emotions are always a perfect reflection of what’s coming.
“How do I feel about this game?”
If you start removing your attention from the logical mind and stop using your mind to make the decisions, then by relying on your emotions, you will very quickly begin to see that your emotions are always a perfect match to what you’re attracting.
When you remove the logical mind and really listen to what you’re feeling, you will always have access to the most accurate answer, since your feelings are an indication of what you’re moving towards. I’ve started practicing using my emotions to determine how the game will end up, before the game has even kicked off.
Your emotions are your best method of making accurate decisions.
By half-time it was 1-1. I knew before the game started that it wouldn’t. If they feel bad, bad things are coming.
As I was practicing this in a recent match I was watching, I noticed a horrible feeling within me. It felt horrible and was definitely unwanted. The end result was a draw, 2-2.
In the opening 10 minutes, we scored a goal and were 1-0 up. You may know it with a different name (gut instincts for example), but simply put the emotions that you feel, are always a perfect match to what you are currently attracting.
If I get a distinct feeling of “positiveness” then the game will be a success and will win.
If I feel pretty bad about the game then it will either be a draw or a loss.
If I feel nothing and am completely neutral, then I don’t make a decision.
Because I watch my team play, I am emotionally attached to the game. So, I knew straight away that my team was going to lose or draw.
Within each and every one of us is something called an Emotional Guidance System. “they can’t predict the outcome!”.
I’m an avid football (soccer) fan and I always enjoy watching my team play on television. This helps me greatly in my decision making. “your emotions are a load of rubbish!” … My logical mind started to kick in… Second half started and the opposing team took the lead and made it 2-1. Your logical mind can only make decisions upon what it already knows. If they feel good, good things are coming. Before the game begins I will ask myself…
If you feel good, you’re attracting good things into your life.
If you feel bad, or neutral, then you’re attracting unwanted things into your life.
How does all of this fit in with betting on events?
By asking yourself the question “how will I feel about this?”, you will always get a perfectly aligned response from your emotional guidance system. All of your thoughts are created from past experiences and so your logical mind is working within your limited belief system.
Is it possible to successfully place a bet and win it using the Law of Attraction? I’ve proved it possible.
It was an uncomfortable game and didn’t bring me any joy
This is often a vital skill in enhancing your poker game. . If you fancy a flutter you will get your fix. Most poker pros will agree the psychology of poker is an extremely important a part of the things they’re doing well. There aren’t many players who claim eternal loyalty to some gaming site and therefore the active gaming cycle on the particular site can vary from weeks to a few months. Locate a good home game or look
for a local card room if at all possible and go play a couple of times per month if you’re able to. Customer retention is with you. The administration of the site is going to be processed every day causing you to be enough time to concentrate on your online marketing strategy.
Within the recent game playing industry events, which I joined, I overheard a discussion between two guys and one of them instructed another that using a casino website is a means to make quick money online. This skill isn’t attainable in internet poker room play; you need to be sitting over the table out of your opponents to achieve this expertise.
casino and poker online are a good spot to play if you have use of a card room in your town I’d recommend spent some play at live games.
It usually takes a few weeks to possess your casino and poker online gaming site fully operational an internet-based, after which it’s your decision they are driving traffic towards your website. You may either to setup and manage your personal customer care team otherwise allow the operator handle this for you personally.
The immediacy from the internet has exposed a brave “new world “for gambler. Play casino and poker online to determine more hands and make use of the ease of a web-based poker site whenever you cannot get free from the home or simply possess a very little time to experience.
casino and poker online need constant attention which is essential that you offer good customer care out of all languages of the target markets. The majority of the well-known casino and poker online sites are run by reputable companies who’ve been within the gaming niche for quite a long time. Creativity in marketing and customer retention is crucial in the current competitive online entertainment business and something is only able to concentrate on the right players by understanding the players themselves. In on-line poker you won’t ever need to be in person together with your opponent whereby live games you can observe your attacker so that you get the chance to determine any tells that they’re going to exhibit. Playing inside a live game is very totally different from playing on-line poker. It is therefore vital that you stabilize your casino and poker online have fun with real live games to operate in your skills. The program of these sites happen to be produced by mainly several specialist developers plus they all try to provide you with as enjoyable and realistic an event as you possibly can that you should play casino poker online. You now are becoming to the facets of poker that cope with playing another players and not simply them you’re dealt
As early as his 13th year or sooner, he was sexually active. Beginning in 1966, he started having some physical problems that seemed chronic. His legs swelled, and he developed sores on his genitals and body.
The commercial airlines recognized the goldmine presented by hiring female “stewardesses”. Certainly, they were paid less. There was also marketability in women that men did not have – women could be hawked by an airline as possible sex partners for the discriminating male traveler choosing its service over another.
Concern for dying gay men was not paramount on America’s mind. As more cases of the mysterious killer emerged, the name was changed from “gay cancer” to “gay-related immune deficiency” (GRID). This, at least, was an open recognition that whatever was causing the disease was compromising a body’s immune system. It didn’t explain, however, the rather esoteric choice of gay men (and soon discovered, IV drug users) by an unintelligent, non-sentient pathogen as victims. It wasn’t until the first heterosexual cases of “gay cancer” emerged that the disease was examined more closely.
AIDS in the United States was isolated in pockets of contagion until the promiscuity (homosexual or otherwise) of the 1970s gave the disease a clear path of propagation in humans. IV drug use, on the rise in the 1970s and early 1980s, also provided another avenue of blood-exchange necessary for the virus to thrive.
His first months in the hospital were spent with his doctors cutting back on his water and salt intake, and they wrapped and raised his legs, all to cut down on his tissue’s swelling. Despite this, the inflammation moved up his body and into his lungs. Antibiotics were tried in varying dosages, but Rayford’s condition continued to deteriorate.
In America, the results of further research led to the conclusion that Gaëtan Dugas had not been the true “Patient Zero” after all.
Current scientific research is clear: sometime in the 1930s, a simian form of immunodeficiency virus mutated sufficiently and made the leap across species to become a contagious disease of people.
Gaëtan Dugas fit right in with the gay community of the bath houses. He was blond, voluble, and open. Sex for him was a series of anonymous engagements, many times conducted hastily in bathroom stalls. He took on whatever he felt like. As well as many other men, he was developing what would become known as “The Clone Look”: close-cropped hair, largish but well-groomed mustache, muscle shirts, short shorts. [The quintessential version of "The Clone Look" would be Freddie Mercury (rock band Queen's lead vocalist who died of AIDS) after about 1981.]
The Road to Zero
As further incentive to not hire men as flight attendants, the death of a gay steward in 1954 became a scandal sufficiently great to lead to a rash of “fag bashings” (both gay men and lesbians were targeted) in Miami, Florida. It was one of the nation’s worst anti-gay outbreaks in history.
Diverting conversations occurred between Rayford and his primary care givers when questioned about his sexual activities. His doctors had not considered homosexuality initially, and all conversations, such as they were, seemed to be taken as referring to female sexual contacts.
Dating America’s exposure to AIDS is irrelevant: AIDS is a global problem. And continuing research has led to many more interesting facts about the spread of HIV.
Rayford lived in a brownstone in a poor neighborhood in St. Memory Elvin-Lewis, thank you so much for not only your contributions to science but to my humble efforts at disseminating it for general readership. I truly appreciate it.
The discrimination in the labor market meant the United States Supreme Court had to step in and force airlines to hire male flight attendants. This happened in 1971 after nearly 20 years of female-dominated service. Even then, the Court’s decision forcing US airlines to hire men was greeted with derision in the press. It also raised homophobic fears of placing men in such a servile and sexualized role.
Gaëtan Dugas died in Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, on March 30, 1984, at the age of 31. His cause of death was kidney-failure brought on by his weakened condition from an onslaught of infections and ailments from AIDS.
Almost any medical professional worth his or her license, whenever a patient dies of a strange ailment, takes the precaution of preserving tissue and blood samples for future research. It is extremely fortunate that some doctors going all the way back to the late 1950s had been so far-sighted. Working backward and re-examining suspicious or otherwise unresolved deaths from contagion globally proved enriching in piecing together the history of AIDS.
Certainly it was not Gaëtan Dugas (though, like Typhoid Mary over half a century before him, many deaths could be placed squarely on his doorstep).
AIDS is what defined the decade of the 1980s, a decade that lived in fear beneath the penumbra of a certain and tortuous death from a highly communicable pathogen. Louis, Missouri) was the earliest confirmed victim of AIDS in North America.
The Greek letter “?” always refers to the end of an event or series, not its beginning. Dugas was “Patient Zero”, not “Patient ?” – if the intent was to use such a Greek designation, he would have been named “Patient Alpha” (“?” or “?”) for “the beginning”. It is known that Dugas from the earliest investigations, based on diagrams the CDC (and others) created interlinking sexual contacts among those diagnosed with or dead from the mystery disease, was referred to from the start as Patient Zero (not Omega or “O”).
The music was disco, the dance beat adapted from gay men and their party scene. The mock S&M dance moves, the sweaty bodies, the throb of the music, the drugs consumed, and the fact that not just anyone could get in heightened its allure.
This doctor handled, and talked with (though reported as largely uncommunicative), Robert Rayford personally for a period during Rayford’s confinement, and also attended Rayford’s autopsy, confirming the KS diagnosis and noting the preservation of tissue samples that later were shown to carry the variant of the HIV-1 virus.
He led doctors to believe any of his sexual activities were strictly heterosexual, even claiming at one point to having a girlfriend (who failed to surface at the time). [This female was found some time later and was found to be in perfect health, relative to HIV and AIDS, from which one can only surmise she and Rayford had no intimate sexual intercourse or such activities were rare enough she was not exposed to critical levels by whatever ailed him.]
Less Than Zero
Certainly, the African-American teenager Robert Rayford (who had never been outside the city of his birth) was not Patient Zero, either – somebody had to give it to him in the first place.
In 1979, before Dugas was infected, a bisexual German concert violinist, Herbert Heinrich, died. In 1989, after testing of medical samples from his body, it was learned he was HIV-positive.
Anal scarring also indicated repeated sexual penetration.
He started out as a hairdresser. Wanting to travel, this French-speaking Canadian learned that flight attendants for Air Canada had to be bi-lingual. He moved to Vancouver and learned English to qualify for the job. He found work as a flight attendant on Air Canada. This career choice allowed him the freedom to move around the world, visiting exotic locales, and meeting many strange men for anonymous sexual encounters. In 1977, he was legally married in Los Angeles, California, in an illegal attempt to gain United States citizenship.
Grethe Rask was a Danish surgeon who had traveled to Zaire in 1972 to lend medical aid for the sick there. She returned to Denmark in 1976 and became relentlessly ill. Her symptoms confounded her colleagues. She died in December 1977. Several years later in 1984, it was confirmed through testing she was HIV-positive. During her time in Zaire, it was known she was directly exposed to blood – it is believed this was the source of her infection.
Running Dugas to ground, however, was pointless. At the time, there were no criminal laws penalizing the willful spread of a known fatal disease (since then, law changes allow charges of attempted and pre-meditated murder to be brought in many states against anyone who is HIV-positive purposefully engaging in unprotected sexual intercourse with an unwitting partner).
On October 31, 1980 – ominously enough, Halloween night – the French-Canadian gay male steward Gaëtan Dugas visited a gay bathhouse for the first time on a layover in New York City.
Mr. many cases of AIDS have been autopsied that we didn’t even know had AIDS.”. Memory Elvin-Lewis was kind enough to respond to this piece in person.
From a front-line perspective
Dr. . It was so unusual at the time . 1952-1953).
This good person also kindly corrected some of the misinformation about Rayford via a personal e-mail and was also kind enough to forward professional papers on the subject. One such paper, in Lymphology from 1973, gives, perhaps, the best clinical synopsis of the case. Another article, entitled Documentation of an AIDS Virus Infection in the United States in 1968 (by the same doctor and others), is also a “must read” for anyone interested in the earlier origins of AIDS in America.
The term “velvet rope” came into existence then – a red velvet rope (as one might see in a museum keeping patrons at a safe distance from a particularly priceless exhibit) became the literal and symbolic barrier between the plebes on the street and the hipsters within. Each night crowds gathered outside Studio 54′s doors; admission was granted whimsically by a group of door men and many times by Steve Rubell himself.
The direct lineage of HIV-1 was traced to two groups of mutations that formed in the primates that carried the simian version. One of the groups was dated to between 1847 and 1907; another subgroup dated to between 1606 and 1871. HIV-2 made the leap most likely between the date range of 1856 and 1922. Thus, it can be seen some prototypical version of the AIDS virus can be dated to the early 17th century.
In the end one can see there is no modern-day “Patient Zero”.
For one gay man, however, being a steward was all he’d needed to satisfy both his wanderlust and his physical lust.
He had a chlamydia infection (a bacterial venereal disease), clearly indicating he was sexually active. His doctors also uncovered evidence of the herpes simplex virus and the virus responsible for Epstein-Barr. Robert Rayford was not terribly forthcoming with his doctors, partly due to his retardation leaving him mostly uncommunicative, but also because he was embarrassed by something.
The very first air flight attendants (in the 1920s) were men. These positions were desirable; the men who did these jobs executed their duties more like up-scale, futuristic train porters and ship stewards than as menials. As with many professions in that era (especially in service jobs such as telephone operators, bank tellers, et al) the sky porters known as “stewards” were exclusively male. World War I saw the shift from male to female telephone operators and bank tellers; with a dearth of male workers during World War II, employers turned to the fairer sex to fill their employment needs in the airline industry, too.
Because of the baffling nature of his case, doctors preserved several tissue and blood samples for later evaluation. In 1987, eighteen years after his death, molecular biologists at New Orleans’ Tulane University tested specimens of Rayford’s preserved blood and tissues. Their findings were stunning: a virus “closely related or identical to” HIV-1 was detected. Further confirmation testing in 1989 proved Robert Rayford (African-American teenage male of St. Doctors, helpless to find the cause of death for the Noe family, preserved some tissue samples. In 1988, further testing showed Noe, his wife, and his daughter had all been HIV-positive
There is an interesting correlation between homosexuality and the airline industry. At least, there is a publicly perceived correlation as it pertains to airline flight attendants.
A year earlier, a Portuguese man known only as Senhor José died under mysterious circumstances. He was treated at the London Hospital for Tropical Diseases to no effect. In later years, examination of preserved tissues verified he died of AIDS; the causative virus, HIV-2 was present, making him the first known confirmed victim. Genetic research on the virus indicated he probably contracted the disease in 1966 in Guinea-Bissau (on the northwest coast of Africa). Three gay men in California and six Haitian immigrants to the United States were later confirmed as AIDS victims from that same year.
This makes little sense.
Of a most enlightening nature was Rayford’s adamant refusal of any rectal exams. It seemed that he may have been exposed to homosexual activity (assuming the submissive role in anal intercourse). One of his attending physicians believed that he had been a victim of sexual abuse (a very likely scenario considering Rayford’s socio-economic background). He could also have been “pimped out” against his will by someone who procured males to engage with him. To date, this aspect of his life is unclear.
AIDS now had a face.
The End of Days was seemingly at hand.
The disease it spawned was rechristened, in light of its indiscriminate virology, to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or AIDS. That same year that 248 cases of the disease were reported, local health departments in conjunction with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in Atlanta began investigating.
Of the 248 cases known before the detection of the virus, interviewing led to the shocking revelation that at least 40 AIDS victims had one thing in common: all had either had sex with a certain male, blond, gregarious Air Canada flight attendant, or they had sex with someone who did. This networking connection was made in 1984, and it was critical – it meant medical and public health officials investigating the source of AIDS might have finally gotten the breakthrough they needed.
Thus, by the late 1940s male flight attendants were not only undesirable, they were suspect as well. Occupying a job with women that devoted itself to customer service, good manners, and fine grooming, the stewards garnered suspicions of being “queer”.
By the 1950s, this homophobia was rampant, and in the conservative times of Eisenhower and McCarthyism, men were slowly pushed out of the steward jobs.
By April of 1982, 248 cases of the disease were reported nationwide with many others too afraid or indifferent to see a doctor. A virus was isolated in 1983 by French scientists (as Europeans were also recognizing and treating patients with “gay cancer”, many of whom were decidedly not gay).
Without a precise diagnosis, Rayford’s cause of death was attributed to the catch-all vagary “loss of vitality”. Intractable fluid imbalance and lung disease were listed as contributors. An autopsy revealed a surprise – his body carried a very rare cancer called Kaposi’s sarcoma internally (though he had but one external lesion on his right thigh). [Today, this cancer and its lesions are bellwethers of AIDS.]
The teen seemed stabilized by late 1968 (when he was around 15 years old). He had been transferred to Deaconess Hospital by then, and in March 1969, however, all of his symptoms reappeared and rapidly worsened. His breathing labored; his white blood cell count (as part of routine blood work) was noted to have dropped dramatically. The only thing concurred at the time was that Rayford’s immune system had been somehow compromised. He developed a fever and died either in the late hours of May 15, 1969, or the early hours of May 16 (sources differ). His primary physician recalled, “Eventually his entire body constituted almost one wave of hard lumps and watery swellings.”
The hedonism of the 1970s raged unchecked, and by the middle of the decade “gay” culture became pop culture. Gay male partiers in the mid 1970s found an outlet on New York’s Fire Island. Gay men rented time-share space in houses on the island and partied their summers away “in season”.
The dubious distinction of being America’s “Patient Zero” – the first documented and verifiable case of AIDS in the country – belongs not to Dugas but to a mildly mentally retarded black teenager named Robert Rayford (born ca. Louis City Hospital, then transferred to Barnes Hospital (now Barnes-Jewish Hospital) in St. It existed as “slim disease”; the condition was universally ignored though many Africans died after mysteriously wasting away. In 1959, about the time the Manhattan Jamaican shipping clerk died of his rare pneumonia, a blood sample from a Congolese man was taken and preserved. Years later, this proved to be HIV-infected. This Congolese man’s fate is unknown (whether he developed full-blown AIDS and died from it or not). Similarly, a preserved lymph-node biopsy specimen taken from a Congolese woman in 1960 later proved to be HIV-positive.
And the real Patient Zero – the HIV-Adam or HIV-Eve – lived and most likely died there, somewhere in the Congo, unknown and unrecognized for the catastrophic role he or she would play in human history.
“I’m Candy – Fly Me!”
Years later, once medical science, and particularly genetics testing, had reached a greater level of technological advance, a revision of the “Patient Zero” findings of 1984 seemed necessary. What was learned by later research was both fascinating and horrific simultaneously. It turned out, HIV had not only been in the world for over a century, but it had been in the United States as early as 1966.
Homophobia was so great by the late 1950s almost no airlines in the United States would hire men as flight attendants – even Eastern and Pan Am stopped hiring stewards. Stewardesses, however, were very desirable. They were marketed as young, beautiful, and sexually available–this was hardly an acceptable career choice for any he-man. In the same way that the sexual orientation of male nurses was suspect, only “pansies” wanted to be stewards.
He was admitted with multiple, and strange, symptoms (given his tender age). . Kramer was a writer in New York and a part of the gay culture. He, however, decided that merely watching his friends die quietly wasn’t enough.
But, it doesn’t end there.
In conjunction with Studio 54, other bars for gay men to frequent thrived. Another meeting place was the bath houses still found in many larger cities. Once serving the utilitarian function for neighborhood residents to bathe (considering most homes up until the late 1920s did not have indoor plumbing) these quaint reminders of The Good Old Days were social gathering places for gay men. They were prevalent in New York City and in San Francisco. [Bette Midler, a great favorite among gay men, got her start singing in gay bath houses; her piano player in those days was songwriter/musician Barry Manilow).
In 1976, a Norwegian sailor, designated with the alias “Arvid Noe”, died; his wife and nine-year-old daughter died the next year of the same wasting disease. In 1961, the 15-year-old Noe had sailed on his first voyage to Africa. He worked a merchant vessel that plied along Africa’s west coast from mid-1961 to mid-1962; during this voyage he was treated for gonorrhea. He sailed again to Africa in 1964, with a port of call in Kenya in eastern Africa. In 1966, Noe started suffering from chronic joint pain and recurrent lung infections. By 1968, he could no longer pass a physical to sail, so he worked as a long-haul truck driver.
There is an apocryphal story that Patient Zero was really Patient “O” (as in the 15th letter of the English alphabet, first letter of the word “Omega” for the last letter of the Greek alphabet, ?). Furthermore, it was alleged that a journalist misinterpreted the “O” (for “?”), and instead wrote up his report, referring to the AIDS’ source as “Patient 0″ ["zero"] instead.
Tracing backward from Haiti (the source of the US strain in 1966) put the disease firmly in Central Africa. The swelling in his legs was bothersome, his genitals and legs were covered in scrofulous skin, and his testicles were severely swollen. He was also emaciated (having lost much weight suddenly), and even though he was an African-American male he was considered “pale”. He also had shortness of breath. His symptoms led his caregivers at Barnes Hospital to conclude that one of his problems was lymphedema (a swelling caused by lymphatic problems). This was only a tiny part of his health issues, however.
He wrote myriad articles on the subject and penned a stage play, “A Normal Heart”, that did well. In May 2014, this stage play was brought to the small screen. It was presented as a movie on HBO starring Jim Parsons (of “Big Bang Theory” TV fame). The story documented the earliest days of the AIDS epidemic in America told from the perspective of the New York City/Fire Island cohort. It is engaging: it is what TV can do (but usually fails to do except in rare cases like this one).
Occasionally, medical mysteries initially thought solved are found later to have very different truths at their cores.
First denying he was sick, he later willfully and maliciously spread the disease to unsuspecting partners. After having casual sex in a darkened room once, a male interviewee later reported he had turned on a light in the room where Dugas lay naked on a bed. This man spotted the lesions (Kaposi’s sarcoma) that were the classic earmarks of “gay cancer” on Dugas’ chest. When he remarked upon it, Dugas replied sardonically, “It’s gay cancer. Maybe you’ll get it.”
Gay and straight partiers alike finally found their Valhalla, however, in New York City in a crummy little club in the 1970s called Studio 54. This rat hole was converted into a hot spot known all over the world. Celebrities fell all over themselves to get in and be seen there. Its allure was its faux air of exclusivity. No club before or since carried the cachet of Studio 54. Co-founded and owned by a cabaret-style, (almost a caricature) flamboyantly gay man, Steve Rubell, and a straight-laced heterosexual lawyer, this kitschy club defined hipsters in the Seventies.
Before Robert Rayford in the US, there was a possible case found in a dead Jamaican native named Ardouin Antonio. He came to the US in 1927. He was working as a shipping clerk for a clothier when he died at age 49 on June 28, 1959, in Manhattan. He had developed a very rare kind of pneumonia, seemingly out of the blue. Decades later the doctor who had performed Antonio’s autopsy was asked to re-evaluate the case. Did he think Antonio possibly died of AIDS? “You bet . Somewhere, there was a Patient Zero, the epidemiological well-spring from which this plague spewed forth.
The airline industry developed glamour. The titillation of a sexy stewardess in uniform, pandering to any business traveler’s ego, was priceless. These were women without boundaries, women who went anywhere, anytime. Therefore, they must be promiscuous. The unspoken possibility of sex with a globe-trotting gal was also alluring. Married women were aggressively discouraged from working as stewardesses. The single women, all within a certain preferred range of body type, height, and attractiveness, were wanton women (in the minds of the average male of the day). Although morbid obesity was not the problem in the 1940s it is today, there were no “big girls” on board.
Gaëtan Dugas, the narcissistic and embittered flight attendant, alternately feeling morose and spiteful about his condition, was given the code name “Patient Zero”, the source of the AIDS epidemic in North America.
Finally, in 1968, the boy was admitted to St. .
Gay men realized the danger. Many made the intuitive leap early that perhaps certain activities, such as anal intercourse, might be transmitting the causative agent. Others flatly refused to believe that their lifestyles might be endangering the health of themselves and of others. They felt it was a perceived backlash against gay men. Higher-profile gay men (many closeted during their lifetimes) and activists within the gay community began dying as well as underground sub-culture members (the “Crisco, leather, and fisting” set).
Good investigative work requires dogged determination. Running an enigma to ground can take years.
Dugas remained unrepentant. He originally denied that whatever disease it was he had could be transmitted sexually. His own words on the subject: “Of course I’m going to have sex. Nobody’s proven to me that you can spread cancer.” His depraved indifference to his sexual partners’ well-being was summarized with “It’s their duty to protect themselves. They know what’s going on out there. They’ve heard about this disease.” The last element of his bitterness was voiced by his wish to take others with him: “I’ve got gay cancer. I’m going to die and so are you.”
Noe’s condition stabilized, but then flared up again in 1975 (coincidentally the same year a strange disorder called “slim disease” was reported in Africa for the first time, the beginnings of epidemic AIDS). In addition to the respiratory condition and joint pains he developed motor skill problems and dementia before he died.
Larry Kramer was actively and aggressively involved with what was then known as “gay cancer” in the early 1980s when the disease first made its poisonous presence visibly known in the United States as “gay cancer”.
This virus, after much international wrangling for recognition of discovery (with a particularly aggressive and bombastic US virologist lobbying for a claim that he had found it first–he did not) was later named Human Immunodeficiency Virus or HIV.
The criteria for entry were pure sadism: one night only women might be allowed in; other times, a sloppily dressed man might be sent away while another, looking exactly like that man but “famous”, would be let in. Gay-themed parties were held there often, and casual sex in the bathrooms and the “exclusive” privacy lounge was common among attendees.
In his wake, one of the unfortunate legacies he left was a renewed homophobia relative to male flight attendants. They became a lightning rod for America’s fear and anger over AIDS and its links with homosexuality. “Patient Zero”, Gaëtan Dugas, was reviled; in death he was even accused of bringing HIV to North America and spreading it around the country.
Update note:Dr. Memory Elvin Lewis
Dr. Louis, Missouri. His mother’s name was Constance Rayford, and he had a brother named George. Rayford was described as slender. His retardation left him relatively uncommunicative from shyness.
Molecular research shows the AIDS epidemic of the 1980s stemmed from a viral strain that had entered the US via Haiti about 1966. Other strains have been isolated as well. As in cases like Robert Rayford’s, the disease died with him (though he probably infected others, those people likely did not have access to the sheer number of sexual partners that, for example, Gaëtan Dugas had, and died before spreading it much).
Instead, about the only thing that can be said of HIV is that its “Ground Zero” location was almost certainly Central Africa.
Dugas may have personally, and directly, been responsible for dozens of AIDS cases (and no telling how many more indirectly), but he did not bring AIDS to the US, nor was he the first confirmed AIDS victim. As noted, several California men and some Haitian immigrants were found later to have succumbed to the disease before Dugas.
The music scene was fueled by this gay celebration, none more blatantly than by a vocal group of disco hustlers calling themselves “The Village People”. They dressed in favorite and stereotypical gay icon costumes – a policeman, a construction worker, a cowboy, a gay biker, and a Native American. They were hugely successful for a short time with big sellers “In the Navy” and “YMCA”. More subtly, Donna Summer performed her brand of dance music that was embraced by the gay community as was she.
Gateway to the West
Gaëtan Dugas was a French-Canadian born February 20, 1953. His life was on a collision course with history. In 1972, Dugas first became sexually active. [He would later claim he had over 2,500 sexual partners in his lifetime, whether all male is unknown. He may have been bisexual.]
Meanwhile, as a symbolic sign of the coming Armageddon, Studio 54 was forced to close its doors for liquor license violations and tax evasion; entrepreneurs Steve Rubell and his business partner were sentenced to short terms of imprisonment. [Rubell later died of AIDS.]
Dugas, meanwhile, knew he was sick. He didn’t know exactly what was wrong, but he had developed the skin lesions, associated with “gay cancer”. But one can’t spread cancer, of course, because cancer isn’t contagious. He indiscriminately continued having sex with men as his whims overtook him. His “advantage” was his mobility – as a flight attendant, he might be in any part of the US, Canada, or the world on a moment’s notice. His bitterness about having gay cancer crossed over into his lackadaisical attitude about possibly harming others.
A strange disease lurked among the gay denizens and creepers of the bath houses, though. Men began dying of pneumonia and other respiratory illnesses, but only after drastically losing weight and developing horrific skin lesions on their faces, necks, backs, and chests. This disease became known in the gay community as “gay cancer”. It was particularly volatile, and it progressed rapidly. Dugas caught it early, possibly with his first encounter in the New York gay bathhouse on Halloween 1980.
One such mystery concerned the AIDS epidemic in America. As long as the killer remained comfortably within the gay community not much was done to investigate. As soon as AIDS found its way into the heterosexual population, though, suddenly America’s interest in ferreting out the cause was paramount. Panic stricken virologists and other epidemiologists worked feverishly to isolate the source of this sexually transmitted disease first endemic among homosexual men.
Both his wife and daughter developed an illness that mimicked his symptoms, and they died in 1977
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Tony Finau tied for 12th last week. Could he win again this year? Maybe, but who wants to bet on it?
5. In his last four tournaments he’s failed to crack the top 25 and he finished last week tied for 66th. He’s a mild threat here to get his 6th PGA win here. He has three PGA Tour wins but his last win was in 2010.
3. Chris Kirk, Charl Schwartzel – 35 to 1 odds each
The Dean & DeLcua Invitational dates back to 1946. That was the last of his three PGA Tour wins.
Jason Bohn – 100 to 1 odds
Chris Kirk is the defending champion in this tournament but that was the last of his four PGA Tour wins. Ryan Palmer missed the cut last week. Schwartzel won the Valspar Championship in March and he could play well this week.
4. He’s a big threat this week to win.. Danny Lee has one win on tour and he finished tied for 18th last week. Chappell is lower odds here because he finished alone in 2nd place at the Players in his last start. After missing the cut in his two previous starts, Jimmy Walker tied for 24th last week. Kevin Chappell – 28 to 1
2. While the meltdown is not a good sign, Jordan Spieth did miss the cut the week before at the Players in his first start since the Masters so he is rounding into form and he did tie for 2nd place in this tournament last year.
The 2016 Dean & DeLuca golf tournament on the PGA Tour is taking place this week from May 26-29, 2016, at the Colonial Country Club located in Fort Worth, Texas. He won the Puerto Rico Open for his first career win at the end of March. Toms has 13 career PGA Tour wins including a major but he’s not won a tournament since 2011.
Boo Weekley won this tournament in 2013. Brandt Snedeker has missed the cut in his last two starts and in three of his last four tournaments but he did tie for 2nd place here last year just one stroke off the lead.
6. Matt Kuchar has not won a PGA Tour event in over two years now and he should be higher odds to win this week.
At odds of 6 to 1, Jordan Spieth is the betting favorite this week to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational. Adam Scott – 11 to 1
Jason Bohn only has two career wins and his last win was in 2010 and he’s missed the cut in his last three PGA Tour starts. Jimmy Walker, Brandt Sendeker, Danny Lee, Jason Dufner – 40 to 1 odds each
1. Kirk missed the cut in his last start at the Players. Scott won this tournament in 2014 beating Jason Dufner in a playoff. On top of that, Bohn suffered a heart attack during the Honda Classic back in February. Louis Oosthuizen’s lone PGA win remains the 2010 British Open and he missed the cut last week.
T-13. Haas has six PGA Tour wins and he was second at the Valspar in March so he’s a mild threat to win this week. At age 32, Kevin Kisner has one career win and he missed the cut in his last two starts. Zach Johnson does have two wins in this tournament (2010, 2012).
Adam Scott finished tied for 12th at the Players two weeks ago in his last start. Jordan Spieth – 6 to 1
Good luck to all the PGA golfers and especially the bettors this week at the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational at Colonial in Fort Worth, Texas!
T-19. Marc Leishman has one career win in 188 starts. Jim Furyk has one win on tour since 2010 and he’s making just his third start back after wrist surgery. Charley Hoffman – 25 to 1
David Toms won this tournament in 2011. Nuff said. Jordan Spieth was in position to win last week at the Byron Nelson playing with Brooks Koepka in the final pairing Sunday just two strokes back but Spieth shot a 74 and ended up tied for 18th place. Bill Haas, Ryan Palmer – 45 to 1 odds each
Since winning the Texas Open for his 4th PGA Tour win on April 21st, Charley Hoffman finished 11th at the Zurich Classic, missed the cut at the Players and finished tied for 12th last week at the Byron Nelson. Zach Johnson – 22 to 1
T-7. Patton Kizzire is 30 and still looking for his first PGA Tour win.
Jason Dufner has a win in 2016 and he’s finished second in this tournament twice in the past (2012, 2014). Patrick Reed has finished alone in 2nd place three times this season but has not won a tournament since January of 2015. Colt Knost, Tony Finau, Marc Leishman, Kevin Kisner, Patton Kizzire – 50 to 1 odds each
Bill Haas tied for 43rd place last week. But Jason Bohn did finish tied for 2nd in this tournament last year just one stroke off the lead.
T-11. Matt Kuchar – 14 to 1
At age 29, Kevin Chappell is still looking for his first PGA Tour win. Chappell also finished alone in 2nd place at the RSM Classic and the Arnold Palmer this season so he’s been close to winning but he’s still a maiden on tour.
Kevin Na has one career win in 314 starts. Here is a list of the betting odds for the PGA golfers to win the 2016 Dean & DeLuca Invitational.
Other than a 5th place finish at the Arnold Palmer in March, Zach Johnson has not played well enough to win in 2016. Adam Scott has two wins in 2016 and 13 total wins on the PGA Tour. Players like Phil Mickelson, Lee Trevino and Zach Johnson are tied for the second most wins with two each.
Boo Weekley – 80 to 1 odds
Matt Kuchar shot -14 under last week to finish alone in 3rd place at the Byron Nelson. Charl Schwartzel tied for 58th place last week but that was his first tournament since he missed the cut at the Masters. Ben Hogan holds the record for most wins in the tournament with five. Don’t be fooled, though, as Kuchar also finished 3rd at the Players but that is not winning. Kevin Na, Louis Oosthuizen, Patrick Reed, Jim Furyk – 33 to 1 odds each
Listed below are the betting odds and comments for each player who has odds of 50 to 1 or less to win this week. Then a few notable golfers with much higher odds are listed along with comments why.
Colt Knost is 30 and he’s yet to win on tour but he tied for 3rd at the Players and was 4th last week in his last two starts
Love him or loathe him, ‘the Donald’ is the man of the moment. Donald J. His bluff, swagger, and unrestrained self-belief have taken him to the top of the political greasy pole. Trump is one… Read more
. He defines himself as the ‘archetypal businessman’: a rags to riches American dream made real
? Gambling at the cost of one’s job results in a decline in the quality of his professional life. They tend to stay away from their near ones, resulting in distrust between them and their loved ones.
? The addiction to gambling can leave one in bankruptcy. On giving a serious consideration to the negative effects of gambling, we realize that it is best avoided.
? Additionally, rehabilitation and public assistance systems are taxed.
? Gambling can lead to criminal activities. This proves to be detrimental to their social and family life. The addiction has negative effects on one’s physical and mental health and it proves to be detrimental to one’s social, personal, and professional life. The National Council of Problem Gambling (NCPG) describes this type of gambling behavior as problem gambling.
You could be at gunpoint or holding the gun. The decision to gamble money is based on three parameters namely; how much to bet, the predictability of the event, and the conditions agreed upon, between the gamblers. The addiction leads people to continue with gambling irrespective of whether they earn or lose in the deal. Addiction to gambling, coupled with substance abuse can make the gamblers physically abusive towards their family. According to the National Research Council, 10 to 17% of the children of problem gamblers have been abused and so have 25 to 50% of the partners of problems gamblers.
? Over time, the practice of gambling starts becoming a habit and begins to have damaging effects at psychological, physical, and social levels. A recreational activity is supposed to be refreshing and relaxing, but something like gambling is contrary to the very purpose of recreation. Their debt keeps building and it may reach an amount that exceeds their capacity to repay.
? The costs of treating compulsive gamblers are huge. Six to eight million people in America are estimated to have a gambling problem.
? Substances of abuse are served at casinos and in pubs and clubs, thus increasing the likelihood of gamblers consuming them. Some take to substance abuse to supplement the high they get from winning huge sums while gambling. Their mental state can even lead to suicidal tendencies.
? Addiction to gambling has been linked with substance abuse. ? They start borrowing money and take secret loans. Thus, gambling practices cause a huge financial burden on the families of the affected and on the society at large.
? A majority of those addicted to gambling have substance abuse disorders.
? The stress from gambling may lead to health issues like ulcers, stomach problems, muscle pains, headaches, and problems with sleep.
? According to a research by NCPG, 76 percent of problem gamblers are likely to have a major depressive disorder.
? Gamblers often exhibit mood swings and a strangely secretive behavior. Card games, coin tossing, and dice-based games are some non-casino based forms of gambling. It soon becomes a habit that can’t be broken.. The effect is similar to that of having a drug or a drink, which is why gambling changes one’s mental state and mood.
? People continue gambling with the greed of winning money. They engage in gambling activities at the cost of their time with family and friends. When they lose the money they had risked, they further gamble to recover the lost amount and it becomes a vicious circle even they can’t escape from.
? Apart from absence at work and drop in efficiency, a common observation is that gamblers tend to steal money and engage in fraudulent behavior to recover from financial losses incurred when gambling, or to get more money to bet.
? As gambling leads to increased criminal activities, in a way, gamblers add to the burden on prisons and the legal system.
? People who fall prey to gambling tend to remain away from their families and waste money on other bad practices. Some go that way to forget the sorrow of losing big sums when gambling.
? Similar to how an individual keeps consuming substances like drugs or alcohol to experience an altered mental state, he continues to gamble. The stress of risking huge amounts of money or the frustration after losing it can increase the tendency of abuse in gamblers. In the following sections of this Buzzle article, we discuss the negative effects of gambling on the individual and society.
? An Austrian study said that around 1 in 5 suicidal patients had a gambling problem.
Compulsive gambling leads to bankruptcy
? Studies show that children with a sibling or parent addicted to gambling, are more likely to take to substance abuse.
? According to a study by the George State University, 50% of the problem gamblers commit crime. A study by the same university suggested that 73% of the individuals who are imprisoned are found to be problem gamblers.
? According to the University of New York, in people with alcohol use disorders, the chances of developing an addiction to gambling are 23 times higher.
? Children of parents who are problem gamblers or gambling addicts tend to feel abandoned and angry, further increasing stress and leading to strained family relations.
? Gambling has proven to be addictive. The skill of a gambler lies in weighing the three parameters and making a decision about what amount should be staked and how much should be expected in return.
? Problem gamblers and addicts tend to abuse their family members. The addiction robs a gambler of all the productive time and leads to loss of efficiency at work. In spite of the losses incurred, they continue betting. Sports betting and arbitrage betting are the other types. Thus, gambling can have a grave economic impact which is difficult to reverse.
Gambling refers to the betting of money on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the intent of winning additional wealth. The addiction gets on to the gamblers to such an extent that they fail to think wisely before acting. Due to lost mental peace, they may ill-treat their spouse and children. It only leads to a thoughtless expenditure of money and valuables.
Mental and physical health problems, financial issues, and conflicts in the family are among the common negative effects of gambling. The greed never ends and they keep betting more and more. To add to the so-called merry atmosphere, gamblers often smoke or drink while playing.
Initially, one looks at gambling as a way to run away from life’s problems, or from stress, anger, and loneliness. Over time, it becomes a habit, and eventually an obsession that can’t be overcome. Forget satisfaction or peace, it is not even refreshing in the real sense. It causes a decline in his/her work performance, thus hampering his career.
Gambling = Thoughtless Expenditure + Waste of Time
? Gambling is practiced as a means of recreation. Rehabilitating the gambling addicts needs money and time, and the process is not very easy. Betting is a mentally taxing activity, and as one goes on risking more and more money, anxiety starts building.
Games offered in casinos, table games like poker, Red Dog, and Blackjack, as also electronic games like Slot Machine and Video Poker are some of the common types of gambling. The two go hand in hand. Because of this, they land in worse situations and take the wrong decisions in life.
? Research has shown that gambling can lead to harmful behavior in people